I have been researching the self-inflicted affects of torture on the human soul and i came across this article by David Dobbs who was writing about Dr Vaughn Bell's comments relating to the psychological impact of torture and the results of "learned helplessness". My interest in his article was particulary acute when he introduced the notion that depression is really the result of a process of "learned helplessness". Having suffered years of "self-torture" where my mind constantly remined me i was just about to die, which finally ended in a complete emotional and intellectual breakdown, i really can see the similarities between a largely self-imposed torture by the ego and the torture administered by the CIA.
Here is the article.
Amid my flu frenzy I missed Vaughn Bell's excellent consideration of CIA psychology through the declassified memos:
I've been reading the recently released CIA memos on the interrogation of 'war on terror' detainees. The memos make clear that the psychological impact of the process is the most important aim of interrogation, from the moment the detainee is captured through the various phases of interrogation.As Vaughn notes,
Although disturbing, they're interesting for what they reveal about the CIA's psychologists and their approach to interrogation.
A couple of the memos note that the whole interrogation procedure and environment is designed "to create a state of 'learned helplessness'.. This is a concept originally developed by psychologist Martin Seligman who found that dogs given inescapable electric shocks would eventually just give up trying to avoid them and remain passive while electrocuted. The theory was related to depression where people with no control over their unpleasant lives supposedly just learnt to be withdrawn and passive.Vaughn points out that while the concept is not particularly well validated, "if it was and you were an interrogator, you'd want to avoid learned helplessness at all costs, because the detainee would see no point in co-operating."
I'd add another point: Some studies have shown "learned helplessness" to be an apt model for major depression from both a behavioral and even a neurological perspective. In a sense, then, to intentionally produce it in someone by causing them pain and distress in a situation they are powerless to change is to inflict on them a mental illness.
You can argue that depression is not a mental illness (i'd argue back). But the point here is that the prevailing medical view is that depression is a mental illness, and that it may be defined (among other ways) as a state of learned helplessness, despondency, and hopelessness. It follows that intentionally producing that state through torture is to intentionally make someone quite ill. And regardless of the ridiculous arguments over whether waterboarding and beating and hanging by the arms for days is torture, the act of making intentionally making someone sick -- indeed, seeking to give them an illness known to carry a risk of death (by suicide) -- would seem rather not okay.